Fresh out of the oven journal article manipulated response effort of children asked to comply with instructions to relinquish toy, concludes with suggestions for parents and teachers:
"(...) its molecular basis is known (the DSM focuses on disorders without a molecular or biological test, that must instead be defined behaviorally." (Ozonoff, 2013)
"To the extent that differences between subtypes have been found, they were quantitative (e.g., differing in degree of impairment, severity of symptoms, or level of cognitive function) rather than qualitative (Prior et al., 1998). "
"Multiple studies demonstrated that most children with an Asperger-like clinical presentation actually met DSM-IV criteria for Autistic Disorder (Gilchrist et al., 2001; Williams et al., 2008)."
"The strongest predictor of diagnosis was what site made it, rather than any characteristic of the child. This is a clear sign that the PDD subtypes were just not working."
Children receiving special education should not be impacted as Asperger’s, PDD-NOS, and childhood disintegrative disorder are not disability categories in IDEA 2004 and these children were already being served based on their individual needs under one of the other 13 categories in IDEA (such as Autism or Other Health Impairment). School districts should not be requiring a medical diagnosis or a re-diagnosis to determine eligibility or services.
"Our findings provide strong evidence that empathy is mediated in a specific area of the brain."
"The findings have implications for a wide range of neuropsychiatric illnesses, such as autism and some forms of dementia, which are characterized by prominent deficits in higher-level social functioning."
This study suggests that behavioral and cognitive therapies can be developed to compensate for deficits in the anterior insular cortex and its related functions such as empathy in patients.Would the therapy be the same for non-empathic patients due to brain damage and to those missing this important social skill without brain damage?